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57.Research and Information Service

The research and information needs of the Members of both Houses of Parliament are met by the Research and Reference Divisions of the Lok Sabha Secretariat. The officers and staff in the Research Division have been functionally organised into the following Wings/Sections:

(i) Political Affairs Wing;

(ii) Economic and Financial Affairs Wing;

(iii) Educational, Scientific and Social Affairs Wing;

(iv) Legal and Constitutional Affairs Wing;

(v)  Parliamentary Affairs Wing (including the Practice and Procedure Unit); and

(vi) Journal Section.

The functions of the Research Division are, inter alia, to assess in advance the information requirements of members by anticipating and identifying subjects of current parliamentary interest, including legislative measures on which Parliament is likely to undertake discussion and which are likely to generate demands from members for detailed information and data.

Constant endeavour is made to keep Members of Parliament informed of the current developments, both national and international, in various fields by issuing, in English and Hindi, objective information material like Brochures, Information Bulletins, Background Notes, Fact Sheets, etc. from time to time.  These publications are based on authentic published sources and continuous efforts are made to keep them up-to-date.

The Division also brings out books and monographs on parliamentary and constitutional matters. Two series of monographs, namely, the ‘Eminent Parliamentarians Monographs Series’ and the `Distinguished Parliamentarians Felicitation Monographs Series’ are also brought out by the Division.  While the former endeavours to recall the services rendered by eminent parliamentarians of yesteryears, the latter attempts to felicitate the distinguished parliamentarians of today.

The information contained in the documents and publications prepared by the Service is based on authentic sources, reference to which is suitably indicated therein, the aim being an objective presentation of facts. No responsibility is accepted by the Secretariat for the accuracy or veracity of the information supplied. Members, while making use of the information supplied, either in the House or outside, should, therefore, cite the original books or documents as the source of information, without quoting the Research and Information Service of LARRDIS as the source.

The Research and Information Service, LARRDIS also brings out the following periodicals for the use of members of both the Houses:

(i)         The Journal of Parliamentary Information (Quarterly): It contains practice and problem-oriented articles on Constitutional and parliamentary subjects from Members of Parliament and other experts in the field.  It also serves as an authentic recorder of developments in practice and procedure and parliamentary events and activities in Indian and foreign Legislatures.

(ii)        The Digest of Central Acts (Quarterly): It contains synopses of all Bills passed by Parliament and assented to by the President.

(iii)       The Digest of Legislative and Constitutional Cases (Quarterly): It contains abstracts of judgments of the Supreme Court and the High Courts involving interpretation of the provisions of the Constitution in important legislative and constitutional cases.

(iv)       Abstracts of Books, Reports and Articles (Quarterly): It contains abstracts of important books received in the Parliament Library and articles appearing in journals and leading newspapers, and synopses of important official Indian and foreign reports, including those from the UN.

(v)        Diary of Political Events (Monthly): It is a chronology of important national and international political developments gleaned from leading newspapers.

(vi)       Public Undertakings: Digest of News and Views (Monthly): It contains mainly abstracts of important news items and comments about the performance of various public sector undertakings of the Union Government appearing in newspapers.

(vii)      Science and Technology: News Digest (Monthly): It contains abstracts of important news items, reports, articles, replies to parliamentary questions and information about recent literature on science and technology, besides research notes on subjects of general interest.

(viii)      IPG Newsletter (Quarterly): It keeps members informed about the various parliamentary events and activities of the Indian Parliamentary Group (IPG), like exchange of Parliamentary Delegations, Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) and Commonwealth Parliamentary Association (CPA) Conferences, meetings, seminars, symposia, etc. Its circulation is restricted to members of the IPG, including Associate Members.

(ix)       Parliament Library Bulletin (Monthly): It contains information regarding the titles of new additions to the Parliament Library during a particular month.  It has separate sections on `Titles added to Staff Library’ and `General News’ pertaining to growth and evolution of various services of LARRDIS, and services provided by them to members presently and also statistical information of work done by various Wings/Sections of LARRDIS and visits of dignitaries to Parliament Library.

(x)        Parliamentary Documentation (Fortnightly): Articles and other literature, which could be of use to Members of Parliament appearing in seventeen leading newspapers and about 180 periodicals and journals are indexed, annotated, classified and codified under a specially devised classification scheme and are brought to the notice of members through this publication.

Copies of the periodicals brought out by LARRDIS are made available to members on request. Other priced publications, including books brought out by the Lok Sabha Secretariat, can be purchased by Members of Parliament at a special discount of 50 per cent of the sale price of the publication.

58.Parliament Library Information System (PARLIS) - The Computer Centre

A Computer-based information system named PARLIS (Parliament Library Information System) was set up in December 1985 for the purpose of introducing automation in the Parliament Library. To make available non-partisan, objective and reliable information and authoritative data on a continuous and regular basis to the parliamentarians, a large number of index-based databases of information generated within the Parliament were initially developed by the PARLIS. The data available for on-line retrieval relate to: -

  • Select Parliamentary Questions (only indexes) from 1985-1999;
  • Indexes of Parliamentary Proceedings from 1985-1999;
  • Government and Private Members' Bill (only indexes) from 1985-1999;
  • Directions, Decisions and Observations from the Chair pertaining to Lok Sabha from 1952;
  • Obituary References made in the Houses since 1921;
  • Library management functions such as acquisition, processing and issue and return of books have also been computerized using the software package named "LIBSYS". A web-based library catalogue has recently been launched and it can now be accessed through the computers installed in PH/PHA as well as residences/work places of MPs at
  • Documentation Service (from 1989 onwards): The important articles published in books, reports, periodicals and newspapers are indexed and annotated. The information can be retrieved through this database.
  • Press Clipping Service has also been computerized recently. The important press clippings of editorials, articles, important news items and other information on different subjects from various English newspapers are scanned daily. Keywords are also assigned keeping in mind the gist of the clippings. The online subject-wise retrieval of the press clippings is available on Intranet.

In keeping with the need for computerization of various services of the Rajya Sabha Secretariat, action was initiated in December 1987 to automate the various activities of the Secretariat, viz. Questions, Members’ Salary and Allowances, Pay & Accounts, etc. Almost all the activities of the Secretariat have now been automated. Computer Cell and NIC Computer Centres, one each in Parliament House (PH) and Parliament House Annexe (PHA) have been set up to provide necessary hardware and software support to various branches of the Secretariat and to the Members of Rajya Sabha.

(a)        Parliamentary Information available on Internet

            The Indian Parliament Home Page was inaugurated on 15 March, 1996 by the Hon’ble President of India.  A comprehensive parliamentary website, including information regarding the President of India, Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha is available for the benefit of Members.  The site also includes valuable reference material like the Constitution of India and Constituent Assembly Debates. The following information of direct interest pertaining to Rajya Sabha/Lok Sabha is available on Internet for Parliamentarians: -

(i)  Business of the House

·        List of Business of Lok Sabha /Rajya Sabha

·        Bulletin Part-I

·        Bulletin Part-II

·        Synopses of Debates

·        Parliamentary Questions

·        Parliamentary Debates (Proceedings)

·        Resume of Work/Business

·        Legislative Business

(ii)Members of Parliament

·        Bio-data of Members of Rajya Sabha from 1994 and Members of Lok Sabha from 10th to 13th Lok Sabha.

·        Brief biographical sketches of Members of Rajya Sabha since 1952

·        E-mail addresses of MPs

·        Addresses & telephone nos. of Members of Parliament

·        Handbook for Members

·        MPLADS

(i)Parliamentary Committees

(ii)Parliament Library

(iii)General Information

(iv)Links to Government websites/State Legislatures/Other Parliaments


(vi)Rajya Sabha/Lok Sabha Secretariats

Members can access the information at the following Internet address:

(b)        Bilingual Website of Rajya Sabha

A bilingual website of Rajya Sabha is also available on Internet with the NIC support and the same can be accessed at the website address This is a separate website exclusively dedicated to Rajya Sabha. The Rajya Sabha website, at present, contains information regarding various aspects of the functioning of the House and its committees including Questions, Bills, Assurances, Debates, Committee matters, etc. Members bio-data with search facility has also been provided and information relating to the MPLADS can also be accessed from this site. Most of the information is supported by online databases. The information available is updated daily especially with regard to List of Business, Part I and Part II Bulletins, etc. so that Members can see the Parliamentary information well in advance.   For Hindi version of the website Members can view the desired information by clicking on the option available at that site. The website includes the following information: -

(a)   Business

·        Today in Rajya Sabha

·        List of Business

·        Bulletin Part-I

·        Bulletin Part-II (with search facility)

·        Papers to be Laid

·        Daily Synopsis

·        Daily Questions List

(ii)  Debates

·        Official Report (Proceedings)

·        Verbatim proceedings

·        Session Resume

·        Session Journals

·        Government Assurances

·        Special Mentions

(iii) Questions

·        General Information

·        Parliamentary Question

·        Questions calendar

·        Search on Questions

·        Status Query

·        Ministry-wise Pending Questions

(iv) Legislation

·        Sessional Information

·        Bills Details

·        Bills with Committees

·        Text of Bills

(v)  Committees

·        General Information and Reports

·        Meetings

·        Engagements

·        Membership Search

·        Recommendations

(vi) General Information

·        Information At a Glance

·        Practice & Procedure

·        Privileges Digest

·        Joint Committee on Offices of Profit

·        Govt. Instructions on dealings with MPs

·        Performance Profile

(vii) Members

·        Deputy Chairperson’s Page

·        Who’s Who (with search facility)

·        Addresses & E-mail

·        Members Page

·        MPLADS

·        Salary Acts & Rules

(viii) Procedures

·        Rules of Procedure of Rajya Sabha

·        Directions from the Chair

·        Rulings and Observations from the Chair

·        Rajya Sabha at Work

·        Handbook for Members

·        Government of India Manual on Parliamentary work

At present the following information is available at the Rajya Sabha website:

Item English Hindi
List of Business From 186th Session till date From 186th Session till date
Parliamentary Bulletin Part-I From 185th Session till date From 188th Session till date
Parliamentary Bulletin Part-II From October, 1998 From 1999 till date
Synopsis of Debate From 188th Session till date From 188th Session till date
Verbatim Debates From 189th Session till date From 189th Session till date
Parliament Questions From 174th Session till date  From 174th Session till date
Government Assurances From 135th Session till date From 135th Session till date
Session wise statement of bills passed by the Houses of Parliament From 188th to 193rd Session 188th, 189th and 190th Session
Bills pending at the end of Session From 188th to 193rd Session From 188th to 193rd Session
Resume of Business From 186th to 193rd Session From 186th to 193rd Session
Session Journals From 174th to 193rd Session From 174th to 193rd Session
Papers laid From 192nd to 194th Session From 192nd to 194th session
Item English Hindi
Parliament Questions List 193rd and 194th Sessions 193rd and 194th Sessions
Bills with Committees          Bills referred to Various Committees

The following printed documents are also available on the website:

(i)                Information At a Glance

(ii)                Practice and Procedure Series

(iii)               Rajya Sabha at Work

(iv)               Rules of Procedure and Conduct of Business in the Council of States (Rajya Sabha)

(v)                Directions from the Chair

(vi)                Privileges Digest

(vii)               Handbook for Members of Rajya Sabha

(viii)              Joint Committee on Offices of Profit

(ix)               Salary, Allowances, Pension-Acts and Rules,

(x)                Manual for Handling Parliamentary work in Ministries

(xi)               Price List of Publications of the Rajya Sabha Secretariat

(xii)              List of titles in CD-ROM Library

(xiii)             Office Manual

(xiv)             Administrative Report

(xv)              Rulings and Observations from the Chair (1952-2000)

      As members and ex-members are quite keen to know details of the record about the issues raised by them in the House from time to time and in order to provide the necessary service to them, the LARRDIS as well as the Rajya Sabha Secretariat often have to search manually through old records. Since now much of the information is available in databases, a comprehensive Member wise facility on Internet has been developed wherein on selecting the name of the Member, information regarding any of the following aspects can be displayed : -  

v     Questions put by the Member

v     Assurances given to the Member

v     Bills introduced by the Member

v     Membership in various Committees

v     Bio-data

v     MPLADS information relating to the Member

v     Member's Homepage

The information has been made available on Internet so that the Member can directly access the information if he desires.

In the process of computerisation of Parliamentary services to Members of Rajya Sabha, some of the Notice forms have been made computer compatible and made available on the website. At present, the following notice forms are available in computer compatible format:

(i)         Zero Hour

(ii)        Special Mention

(iii)       Short Duration Discussion

(iv)       Calling Attention

(v)        Starred Question

(vi)       Unstarred Question

(c)        Touch Screen Information (KIOSKS)

Twelve Touch Screen Information Kiosks having the facility of accessing the data relating to questions, debates, bio-data, bulletin, List of Business, Bills, Parliamentary Committees, telephone nos., postal and e-mail addresses of members  have been installed since February 2000 at the following vantage points: -

(i)         Reception Office;

(ii)        Library Ground Floor, Parliament House;

(iii)       Central Hall, Parliament House;

(iv)       Inner Lobbies of Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha;

(v)       Ground Floor & Basement of Parliament House Annexe.

(d)        CD-ROM  Library

The proceedings of Rajya Sabha are also being recorded on CD-ROM.  A CD-ROM Library has been created for Members of Rajya Sabha.  The list of CD-ROMs, which are at present available, can be had from the Computer Cell (Room No. 213, Parliament House Annexe) or from Rajya Sabha website.  Members can fill in requisition for titles in the requisition form available with Computer Cell, Parliament House Annexe (Room No. 213) and Notice Office and the titles available are issued by Computer Cell.

(e)        Digital Library

A Digital Library has been set up in the Computer Centre, Lok Sabha Secretariat to cater to the needs of Members of Parliament. The collection on DVDs, CDs, tapes and floppies is being developed keeping in view the core area of interest of Members of Parliament and the latest technological advances. A CD containing Constitution of India, Constituent Assembly Debates was released by Hon’ble President of India on 15 March 1996.  A member is entitled to borrow two DVDs/ CDs at a time for his own reference for a period of one week.

(f)        Computer facilities for Members of Parliament

Keeping in view the immediate information requirements of the parliamentarians and to automate their offices, computers have been provided to them at their residences/work places. This helps the members to get instant and up-to-date information on a wide range of activities through Internet; to organize their office work; receive/send electronic mail; have a quick and accurate information on legislative and parliamentary matters, etc. on their desk.

Members of Parliament have also been provided Internet and e-mail connectivity through NICNET so as to provide access to the Parliament database, other Government database, database of foreign Legislatures and vast source of other information available on the Internet. Each member has also been provided with a protected electronic mailbox for the exchange of messages through e-mail and additional telephone line has also been provided to each member so as to access Internet.  As the NICNET is also linked with capitals of all States and District Headquarters of the country, parliamentarians are able to exchange messages and other information with State and District administration in India.

Computer equipment is made available to Members of Rajya Sabha to assist them in discharging their functions/duties.  Efforts in computerization of services to Members have resulted in Members receiving day’s agenda, notices, mail and relevant information pertaining to the session on their computers.  The computer and related equipment (Desktop computer, Deskjet printer and UPS) is supplied to the Member for his/her term of Rajya Sabha and the equipment is to be returned by the Member on ceasing to be a Member of Rajya Sabha.  Alternatively, a Member may purchase the machine at depreciated cost at the time of retirement.  In case of re-election of the Member, he/she is entitled to a new machine in case no computer equipment is outstanding against his/her name from the previous term.  Internet and e-mail facility is also provided to Members by National Informatics Centre (NIC) free of charge.  The computer equipment is supplied under the PROVISION OF COMPUTERS TO MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT AND  OFFICERS - RULES AND PROCEDURES-1995’, which are as follows: 

1.         Short title and extent:

(i)         These rules and procedures may be called the Provision of Computers to MPs (Rajya Sabha) and Officers-Rules and Procedures, 1995.

(ii)        These extend to all MPs (Rajya Sabha) and Officers of Rajya Sabha Secretariat.

2.         Definitions

In these rules and procedures unless the context otherwise requires:-

(i)         “Computer” means and includes all electronic gadgets capable of storing and retrieving data by whatever name called.

(ii)        ‘Committee’ or ‘Computer Committee’ means the ‘Committee on Provision of Computers to Members of Rajya Sabha.’

(iii)       “Damage” means any damage making the computer unworkable or which affects its efficiency or any other physical damage.

(iv)        “MP” for the purposes of these rules and procedures means a sitting Member of Rajya Sabha.

(v)         “Officer” means an officer not below the rank of Joint Secretary of Rajya Sabha Secretariat.

(vi)        “Political Parties/Groups” means Political Parties having offices in the Parliament House.

(vii)        “Secretariat” means the Rajya Sabha Secretariat.

(viii)       “Software” means set of programmes supplied in floppies alongwith the computer.

3.         Provision of Computers

(i)         Computers may be made available to the MPs and officers to assist them in discharging their functions/duties.

(ii)         The computer and related equipment will be supplied on receipt of a request signed by the Member on a form prescribed for this purpose.

4.        Procurement of Computers and Software

(i)         Computers of appropriate type for use by the MPs and officers will be selected, procured and supplied by the Ministry of Information Technology/NIC or any other agency nominated by the Committee on Provision of Computers to Members of Rajya Sabha.

(ii)        The software for operating the machine will be procured/developed by the Ministry of Information Technology/NIC or any other agency appointed by the Committee and will be provided to the users alongwith the machines.  These agencies will upgrade the software from time to time according to the common requirements of the users.


(i)         A Standing Technical Advisory Committee (STAC) consisting of the officers of the Secretariat and NIC would be formed to assist the Secretariat in the evaluation/selection of the hardware/software requirements.  The STAC would be duly approved by the Committee.

(ii)        At least two months in advance of actual requirement of new/upgraded computers, the Secretariat would request STAC to work out detailed technical specifications for the requirements keeping in view the latest technology and upgrade capabilities.  The detailed technical specifications prepared by STAC will be placed by the Secretariat before the Computer Committee for its approval.

(iii)      The approved technical specifications will be tendered by the Secretariat following the Limited Tender procedure since computers are to be supplied in Delhi and maintained by Delhi based companies. The Secretariat will maintain and keep up-to-date list of approved tenderers. The list would be got approved from the Computer Committee from time to time.

(iv)       Sealed bids will be invited for the requisite number of computers or related equipment from the list of approved tenderers, in two separate sealed envelopes, respectively containing ‘technical bid’ on the specifications and the ‘financial bid’ on the rates and terms and conditions of supply, giving date and time of receipt of tenders, opening of technical bids and opening of financial bids.

(v)       Bid documents will be prepared by the STAC so as to include suitable conditions regarding delivery, installation, testing, warranty, servicing, price variation conditions due to reduction in customs duty in Budget, etc. Directions of the Computer Committee in this regard while approving the technical specifications will be included.

(vi)      The technical bids of tenders received in time will be opened by the STAC        on the stipulated date and time, in the presence of such tenderers who may wish to be present. The tender opening process will follow the prescribed procedure. The financial bid envelopes, signed by the members of the STAC will be kept unopened in safe custody.

(vii)     A comparative technical statement will be prepared by the STAC and bids technically qualifying as per specifications will be short-listed. Clarifications may be obtained if required on technical bids only after obtaining orders of Secretary-General in consultation with the Chairman of the Computer Committee, and bids not meeting all specifications will be rejected with the approval of the Secretary-General in consultation with the Chairman of the Computer Committee and reasons intimated. No further correspondence will, however, be entertained with the tenderer.

(viii)     Short-listed tenderers who are technically qualified will be informed and the financial bids of short listed tenderers will be opened on the stipulated date and time by the STAC in the presence of such short listed tenderers who may wish to be present.

(ix)      The final Comparative Chart containing the technical and financial specifications of the short listed bidders will be prepared by the STAC and placed by the Secretariat before the Computer Committee, indicating the L-1 rate (i.e. lowest technically suitable rate), for approval of the Computer Committee.  The Computer Committee may, if it so desires, invite the L-1 tenderer for further negotiations, but no negotiations will be held with any other bidder.  In case of larger requirements, the Committee may also approve empanelment of all such technically qualified tenders who agree to provide the equipment at L-1 price.  The Committee will issue directions in distribution of the supply order in such cases.

(x)        In case the time limit has expired before the Comparative Chart is ready, no further processing will be done by the Secretariat and the matter will be placed before the Committee, which may approve –

(a)        seeking extension of validity from all the technically qualified tenderers; or

(b)        inviting revised financial bids from all the technically qualified tenderers; or

(c)        cancellation of tender and retendering with specified higher specifications in case these have become available.


In case any new category of computer related equipment or software not supplied earlier to Members is to be purchased, the STAC on the basis of general requirement projected by the Computer Committee, will propose the detailed technical specifications for the approval of the Computer Committee. The prescribed procedure will then be followed for the procurement.


Director-General/Deputy Director-General, NIC will be a special invitee to all meetings of the Committee for technical advice.

5.        Duration for which computer can be made available

(i)         The period for which a computer can be made available to an MP shall be limited to his/her term of Rajya Sabha.

(ii)        In case of an Officer, the period shall be limited to his/her holding of office in the Secretariat.

(iii)       The computer shall be returned by the Member on ceasing to be a Member of Rajya Sabha.  The computer shall be returned by the Officer on the last day in office in the Secretariat.

(iv)       In case a Member wishes to purchase the  computer equipment supplied to him/her or get it upgraded  the following sub-rules are applicable:

(a)    The software will be completely written off in the first year itself while   computing the depreciation, the cost of maintenance, insurance and consultancy will not be added.

(b)   The hardware will be depreciated @ 60% per year on written down value i.e. the depreciated price will become 40% of the original price during the first year, 16% during the second year and 6.4% during the  third year.

(c)    No Member is permitted to purchase the computer before his/her term  of Rajya Sabha expires.

(d)   A Member can request for  upgradation of the computer provided to him/her, after two years. If the machine is not technically upgradable, the entire CPU may be replaced.

(e)    Only one new computer will be issued to a Member during his/her complete term as a Member of Rajya Sabha except in circumstances as outlined in (d) above. A retiring Member may either purchase the machine at depreciated cost at the time of retirement or return the machine.  In case of re-election of the Member, he/she would be entitled to a new machine in case no computer equipment is outstanding against his/her name from the previous term.

6.        Maintenance of computer

(i)         The responsibility of maintenance of the computers shall be of the Ministry of Information Technology/NIC or any other agency nominated by the Committee on Provision of Computers to Members of Rajya Sabha.

(ii)        The computers shall be insured by the Secretariat as soon as these are procured.  The annual premium for the first three years will be paid by the Secretariat.  From the fourth year onwards, the annual premium will be paid by the individual MPs.

7.        Computer stationery and consumables

All computer stationery and other consumables shall be procured and paid for by the user.

8.        Recovery of cost in case of loss or damage to computer

(i)        The user shall be responsible for loss or damage other than those indemnifiable under insurance policy.

(ii)       In all cases referred to in Sub-Section (i) above, the opinion of the experts from the agency designated under Rule 6 above or any other authority nominated by the Secretariat for this purpose about the extent of damage shall be final.

(iii)      The damages so assessed or in case of non-return of the computer, its accessories and software to the Secretariat, the cost thereof shall be realised as arrears of land revenue.

9.        Training

The training programme for the MPs and Officers may be organized by the Secretariat in collaboration with the Ministry of Information Technology and the NIC to familiarize the users with the computers and software provided to them from time to time.

10.        Provision for amendment

These rules and procedures may be amended from time to time with the approval of the Hon’ble Chairman, Rajya Sabha.

59.Documentation Service

The Documentation Service, set up in 1975 as a functional unit of LARRDIS, is mainly responsible for locating, collecting, subject-wise classifying and indexing of books, reports, parliamentary debates and articles appearing in periodicals and newspapers.

The Documentation Section scans eighteen newspapers and one hundred seventy seven periodicals, books, reports and parliamentary debates received in the Parliament Library during a fortnight.  The useful literature and articles that need to be brought to the notice of members are indexed, annotated, classified and codified under a specially devised classification scheme.  All these details are fed into the computer, processed and published in the form of a fortnightly, called Parliamentary Documentation.  Subject and author indexes are also generated from the computer and provided in the publication which serves as a useful guide for further research and reference.

To keep pace with the advances in information technology, the Documentation Section was computerised in the year 1989.  Computerised database is designed to cater to the instant reference needs of members and officers of Parliament, committees, the Research and Reference personnel and other staff members.

Information which is stored in the computer since 1989 is available for on-line retrieval year-wise, subject-wise, state-wise and country-wise.  In addition to this, the entire data relating to the fortnightly Parliamentary Documentation is available on the Internet since June 1998.

Computerised bibliographies on specific subjects of contemporary interest, selected on an ad hoc basis and relating to important business coming up for discussion in both Houses of Parliament, are retrieved from the computer as and when required.  This has facilitated the availability of instant and up-to-date information to the members and officers.